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Includes tutorial paper s , written by experts in the field Presents up-date research in the area of sensors and Microsystems Contains contributions from both academic and industrial researchers Comprises a compendium of current research in Italy in the field of sensors and microsystems. Preliminary Results.

JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Tutorial paper s , written by experts in the field Up-date research in the area of sensors and microsystems Contributes coming from both academic and industrial researchers Compendium of current researches in Italy in the field of sensors and microsystems see more benefits.

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Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. Many essential aspects of the disciplines related to advanced sensors and microsystems are covered, ranging from nano- and new materials to applications, multifunctional systems, micromechanics, and new technology. The wide range of contributions reflects the multidisciplinary character. Sensors : Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Sensors, Rome February, by Dario Compagnone 6 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide This book contains a selection of papers presented at the Second National Conference on Sensors held in Rome February The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies.

This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications. The book represents an invaluable and up-to-the-minute tool, providing an essential overview of recent findings, strategies and new directions in the area of sensor research.

Further, it addresses various aspects based on the development of new chemical, physical or biological sensors, assembling and characterization, signal treatment and data handling. Lastly, the book applies electrochemical, optical and other detection strategies to relevant issues in the food and clinical environmental areas, as well as industry-oriented applications.

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Multisensor systems for chemical analysis : materials and sensors by Larisa Lvova 7 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide This book explores recent advances in the development of artificial sensory systems, widely known as electronic tongues ETs. Each of the booke tm s nine chapters is devoted to a particular research direction in modern ET, highlighting up-to-date ET technologies and applications.

Prominent authors from around the world discuss various designs, sensor materials, and transduction principles. Helping readers understand the principles and development of reliable analytical instruments, the book will inspire fruitful new ideas and significant practical advances. Sensors and microsystems : proceedings of the 4th Italian Conference : Roma, Italy, February by Italian Conference on Sensors and Microsystems Book 13 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide This volume presents the new objectives of physics on self-organizing systems composed of multi-components, in order to create a new field and establish universal comprehension in physics.

The book covers broad topics such as the thermodynamic time asymmetry in both transient and stationary nonequilibrium states, the seriousness of auxiliary conditions in physicochemical processes and biological systems, the quantum-classical and micro-macro interfaces which are familiar in mesoscopic physics, the purification scheme of quantum entanglement, topics on gamma-ray bursts, and the walking mechanism of single molecular motors. Artificial and natural perception : proceedings of the 2nd Italian Conference on Sensors and Microsystems : Rome, Italy, February by C Di Natale Book 6 editions published between and in English and held by 74 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.

Sensors and Microsystems - AISEM Proceedings | Arnaldo D’Amico | Springer

Sensors and microsystems : AISEM proceedings by P Malcovati 9 editions published in in English and held by 60 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Sensors and Microsystems contains a selection of papers presented at the 14th Italian conference on sensors and microsystems. The scientific values of the papers also offers an invaluable source to analyists intending to survey the Italian situation about sensors and microsystems. In an interdisciplinary approachm many aspects of the disciplines are covered, ranging from materials science, chemistry, applied physics, electronic engineering and biotechnologies.

The response typically lasts 1 s or more. The latency between the arrival of the stimulus and the onset of the current ranges from to ms and, for a strong stimulus, the amplitude of the peak current can reach several hundred pA [21, 36, 52]. The basic electrical properties of olfactory sensory neurons, as well as the ion gradient across the ciliary membrane, play a fundamental role in shaping the properties of the odorant-induced response.

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In , Lynch and Barry [33] reported that, in rat olfactory sensory neurons, the opening of a single ion channel was sufficient to induce the generation of action potentials. This is due to the very high input resistance, between 3 and 6 GX, typical of olfactory sensory neurons, producing a large depolarization also for very small odorant-induced currents [48]. Resting membrane potentials ranges between and mV, with a mean value of mV [21, 28, 48, 52].

The electrical response to odorants is due to ion fluxes across the cell membrane, and therefore ion homeostasis is very important in signal transduction. Since the olfactory cilia are embedded in mucus covering the olfactory epithelium the relevant physiological ion concentrations are those in the mucus and inside the cilia.

Data available about the intra- and extra-ciliary concentrations of major physiological ions are summarized in Table 1. ENernst is the calculated Nernst potential from the reported ion concentrations. Most of the ion concentrations were measured by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis in dendritic knobs of rat olfactory sensory neurons [51]. In the neuron illustrated in Fig. The Hill coefficient, n, describes the slope of the rising phase of the dose—response relation and its values ranges between 2.

With such a non-linear amplification, only a slight change in the concentration of odorant molecules produces a large change in the response.

Sensors and Microsystems

As n decreases, the slope also decreases, causing an increase in the range of stimulus strengths over which the neuronal response varies dynamic range for reviews see [21, 36, 52]. This phenomenon involves many processes along the entire olfactory pathway, but it begins in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons. Indeed, during application of a prolonged odorant 8 S.

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  • Different neurons respond to a specific subset of odorants. Neuron 1 responded to all three odorants, while neuron 2 responded to only one odorant, and neuron 3 to two of the tested odorants. Modified from Firestein et al. Figure 1. While the reduction is greater with shorter interstimulus intervals, the current amplitude gradually recovers to the initial value increasing the interval between odorant pulses Fig.

    It is important to note that sensory adaptation is not merely a reduction in response amplitude, but its physiological role involves the adjustment of the response to allow a cell to work over a broad range of stimuli for review see [57].

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    Indeed, in odorant adaptation to repetitive stimuli there is a shift of the dynamic range i. In each recording, the top trace indicates timing and duration of the odorant stimuli. Two identical pulses of the odorant amylacetate were delivered to an olfactory sensory neuron with different interstimulus intervals. The holding potential was mV. Odorant receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors.

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    • The mouse repertoire contains about 1, potentially functional odorant receptor genes and is by far the largest gene superfamily in a mammalian genome [10, 38, 60]. In humans, about odorant receptor sequences are potentially functional [37]. At the molecular level, odorant receptors share the same general structure of the other G-protein coupled receptors, with seven a-helical membrane-spanning domains connected by intracellular and extracellular loops of variable lengths, and numerous conserved short sequences.

      The most critical residues involved in odorant binding are hydrophopic and are located in the third, fifth and sixth transmembrane regions, which may form the ligand-binding pocket for odorant molecules [17]. The spatial localization of the binding pocket is similar to that for other members of the family, although the environment is quite different. For example catecholamines have been shown to form multiple electrostatic interactions through ionic bonds with adrenergic receptors. In contrast, in odorant receptors, the interaction of odorants with the binding pocket is based on hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions and therefore is rather weak, producing a low-affinity ligand-binding.

      Importantly, odorant receptors are still capable of selecting for shape, size and length of the ligand [17]. To understand how olfactory sensory neurons discriminate among odorants it is important to know how many types of odorant receptor genes are expressed in 10 S. Figures on the right represent odorant receptors activated by the odorants molecules on the left. Each type of odorant molecule activates a unique combination of receptors. Viceversa, each activated combination of receptors corresponds to one type of odorant molecule each olfactory sensory neuron.

      It has been shown that every olfactory sensory neuron expresses a single odorant receptor gene. Moreover, the choice seems to be a stochastic process, which is likely to remain stable during the entire life of each olfactory sensory neuron, although not all odorant receptors are chosen with the same frequency [37, 38].

      Another important information is the knowledge of how many and which odorants bind to each odorant receptor. It has been well established that each odorant receptor can be activated by several types of odorant molecules Fig. On the other hand, one single type of odorant can activate several types of odorant receptors. Thus, the odorant receptor family is used in a combinatorial manner to discriminate odorants and each odorant is recognized by a unique combination of receptors Fig.

      This scheme is consistent with previous observations that single olfactory sensory neurons can be stimulated by multiple odorants Fig. Since each of these neurons expresses only one unknown odorant receptor type, a given neuron responds to a small and unpredictable subset among the many available odorants [13].

      The combinatorial receptor coding scheme has the great advantage of allowing the olfactory system to recognize a large number of odorants and also to discriminate between odorants that have very similar but different structures, such as aliphatic odorants with different carbon chain lengths. Unfortunately, the identification of ligands for odorant receptors is still very limited, due to the difficulty to express odorant receptors in heterologous systems suitable for high-throughput screening [37, 38].

      When an odorant molecule binds to an odorant receptor, it 1 Odorant Detection and Discrimination in the Olfactory System 11 Fig. Scale bar, 1 lm. Adapted from Morrison and Costanzo [39], with permission. Modified from Pifferi et al. The binding of an odorant molecule to an odorant receptor in the cilia induces a conformational change of the receptor causing the activation of an interacting G-protein.